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Dr. Tadhg Kennedy

Biography

Tadhg studied Pharmaceutical and Industrial Chemistry at undergraduate level before obtaining his PhD in Chemistry in the University of Limerick. He is currently a lecturer in the Department of Chemical Sciences where his teaching interests lie in environmental science.

Dr Kennedy's research involves the development of nanostructured materials for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Dr Kennedy has been successful in securing >€2.4M from national, international and industry sources as either PI or co-applicant in the last 3 years. He is coordinator of the TRIDENT project, which is a large scale collaborative research project funded by the Irish Government through the Disruptive Technologies Innovation Fund. The goal of the project is to develop a low-cost, high-performance sodium-ion smart battery system for residential energy storage. He is also PI on a number of other battery related projects including a grant from the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland for low-cost Na-ion battery development for grid-scale storage of intermittent renewable energy. Dr Kennedy's other research interests lie in the development of polymer nanocomposites with enhanced electrical properties. He also is actively researching the development of a nanostructured biosensor for detection of viral pathogens.

Research Interests

There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Lithium-ion batteries are by far the most popular on the market today and during the past three decades there has been great interest in developing active materials with improved electrochemical performance, particularly in alternatives to the graphite anode which has a relatively low maximum theoretical specific capacity of 372 mAh/g. Silicon and germanium based anodes are promising replacement candidates as they exhibit capacities that are multiples of graphite due to their ability to form lithium-rich alloys during charging. However, the formation of these high-capacity lithiated alloys, Li15Si4 (3579 mAh/g) and Li15Ge4 (1384 mAh/g), leads to considerable expansion of bulk Si and Ge electrodes (> 300%) which causes pulverisation of the material and loss of contact with the current collector, ultimately limiting the cycle life of Li-alloying anodes. By employing nanoscale materials this issue can be circumvented as the nano-dimensions can accommodate the large volume change without fracture, leading to a longer cycle life for the electrode.

My research involves the development of Si and Ge nanowire based electrodes as high-capacity anodes for next-generation Li-ion batteries. The unique morphology is well suited for lithium-ion battery applications as nanowires provide good electrical conductivity along their length, have a high interfacial area in contact with the electrolyte, have an optimal short diffusion distance for Li-ion transport, and can be grown directly from current collectors, eliminating the need for binders and conductive additives. These nanowire anodes have long cycle lives comparable to conventional graphitic anodes while delivering over three times the capacity over extended cycles. In particular in my research I look at:

·

Development of rapid synthetic methods for substrate grown nanowires

·

Identification of Li active catalyst materials for nanowire growth

·

Electrochemical characterisation of Si and Ge nanowire electrodes

·

Analysis of the effect of cycling on nanowire integrity and morphology

·

Electrolyte development and characterisation

Professional Activities

Award

  • 2015 - MSSI Best Postgraduate Web of Science Journal Publication in 2014
  • 2014 - Irish Research Council Government of Ireland ‘New Foundations' Award
  • 2010 - Bristol Myers Squibb Gold Medal
  • 2010 - Advanced Scholar Award

Publications

Book Chapters

2015

GREENLION Project: Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Low Cost Greener Li-Ion Batteries. In Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation
de Meatza, I.; Miguel, O.; Cendoya, I.; Kim, G.-T.; Löffler, N.; Laszczynski, N.; Passerini, S.; Schweizer, P. M.; Castiglione, F.; Mele, A.; Battista Appetecchi, G.; Moreno, M.; Brandon, M.; Kennedy, T.; Mullane, E.; Ryan, K. M.; Cantero, I.; Olive, M
(2015) GREENLION Project: Advanced Manufacturing Processes for Low Cost Greener Li-Ion Batteries. In Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation
In Electric Vehicle Batteries: Moving from Research towards Innovation; Switzerland : Springer

Peer Reviewed Journals

2021

Real-time internal temperature estimation of commercial Li-ion batteries using online impedance measurements
K McCarthy, H Gullapalli, T Kennedy
(2021) Real-time internal temperature estimation of commercial Li-ion batteries using online impedance measurements
In Journal Of Power Sources;
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2021.230786

2021

In-situ continuous hydrothermal synthesis of TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles on conductive N-doped MXene nanosheets for binder-free Li-ion battery anodes
Alli, U.;McCarthy, K.;Baragau, I.-A.;Power, N.P.;Morgan, D.J.;Dunn, S.;Killian, S.;Kennedy, T.;Kellici, S.;
(2021) In-situ continuous hydrothermal synthesis of TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles on conductive N-doped MXene nanosheets for binder-free Li-ion battery anodes
In Chemical Engineering Journal;
DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2021.132976

2021

Amorphization driven Na-alloying in Si<inf>x</inf>Ge<inf>1âˆ'x</inf>alloy nanowires for Na-ion batteries
Abdul Ahad, S.;Kilian, S.;Zubair, M.;Lebedev, V.A.;McNamara, K.;Ryan, K.M.;Kennedy, T.;Geaney, H.;
(2021) Amorphization driven Na-alloying in Si<inf>x</inf>Ge<inf>1âˆ'x</inf>alloy nanowires for Na-ion batteries
In Journal Of Materials Chemistry A;
DOI: 10.1039/d1ta03741b

2021

Dense Silicon Nanowire Networks Grown on a Stainless-Steel Fiber Cloth: A Flexible and Robust Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Imtiaz, S.;Amiinu, I.S.;Storan, D.;Kapuria, N.;Geaney, H.;Kennedy, T.;Ryan, K.M.;
(2021) Dense Silicon Nanowire Networks Grown on a Stainless-Steel Fiber Cloth: A Flexible and Robust Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
In Advanced Materials;
DOI: 10.1002/adma.202105917

2021

Tin-Based Oxide, Alloy, and Selenide Li-Ion Battery Anodes Derived from a Bimetallic Metal-Organic Material
Foley S.;Geaney H.;Kennedy T.;Aminu I.;Bree G.;McCarthy K.;Darwish S.;Connolly S.;Mukherjee S.;Lebedev V.;Zaworotko M.J.;Ryan K.M.
(2021) Tin-Based Oxide, Alloy, and Selenide Li-Ion Battery Anodes Derived from a Bimetallic Metal-Organic Material
In Journal Of Physical Chemistry C;
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c06395

2021

Review - Use of Impedance Spectroscopy for the Estimation of Li-ion Battery State of Charge, State of Health and Internal Temperature
Mc Carthy, K.;Gullapalli, H.;Ryan, K.M.;Kennedy, T.;
(2021) Review - Use of Impedance Spectroscopy for the Estimation of Li-ion Battery State of Charge, State of Health and Internal Temperature
In Journal Of The Electrochemical Society;
DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/ac1a85

2021

Direct Growth of Si, Ge, and Si–Ge Heterostructure Nanowires Using Electroplated Zn: An Inexpensive Seeding Technique for Li-Ion Alloying Anodes
Kilian S.;McCarthy K.;Stokes K.;Adegoke T.E.;Conroy M.;Amiinu I.S.;Geaney H.;Kennedy T.;Ryan K.M.
(2021) Direct Growth of Si, Ge, and Si–Ge Heterostructure Nanowires Using Electroplated Zn: An Inexpensive Seeding Technique for Li-Ion Alloying Anodes
In Small;
DOI: 10.1002/smll.202005443

2021

Progress and perspectives on alloying-type anode materials for advanced potassium-ion batteries
Imtiaz, S.;Amiinu, I.S.;Xu, Y.;Kennedy, T.;Blackman, C.;Ryan, K.M.;
(2021) Progress and perspectives on alloying-type anode materials for advanced potassium-ion batteries
In Materials Today;
DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2021.02.008

2021

Temperature induced diameter variation of silicon nanowires via a liquidâ€'solid phase transition in the Zn seed
S Kilian, TE Adegoke, SA Ahad, H Geaney, T Kennedy, KM Ryan
(2021) Temperature induced diameter variation of silicon nanowires via a liquidâ€'solid phase transition in the Zn seed
In Chemical Communications;
DOI: 10.1039/d1cc04427c

2021

Online state of health estimation of Li-ion polymer batteries using real time impedance measurements
K McCarthy, H Gullapalli, T Kennedy
(2021) Online state of health estimation of Li-ion polymer batteries using real time impedance measurements
In Applied Energy;
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.118210

2020

Influence of Carbonate-Based Additives on the Electrochemical Performance of Si NW Anodes Cycled in an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.
Stokes K;Kennedy T;Kim GT;Geaney H;Storan D;Laffir F;Appetecchi GB;Passerini S;Ryan KM;
(2020) Influence of Carbonate-Based Additives on the Electrochemical Performance of Si NW Anodes Cycled in an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.
In Nano Letters;
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01774
[ULIR]

2020

Comparing nanoparticles for drug delivery: The effect of physiological dispersion media on nanoparticle properties
Ross A.M.;Kennedy T.;McNulty D.;Leahy C.I.;Walsh D.R.;Murray P.;Grabrucker A.M.;Mulvihill J.J.E.
(2020) Comparing nanoparticles for drug delivery: The effect of physiological dispersion media on nanoparticle properties
In Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials For Biological Applications;
DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.110985
[ULIR]

2019

Tunable Core-Shell Nanowire Active Material for High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes Comprised of PECVD Deposited aSi on Directly Grown Ge Nanowires
Stokes K.;Boonen W.;Geaney H.;Kennedy T.;Borsa D.;Ryan K.
(2019) Tunable Core-Shell Nanowire Active Material for High Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes Comprised of PECVD Deposited aSi on Directly Grown Ge Nanowires
In ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces;
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b03931

2019

Highlighting the importance of full-cell testing for high performance anode materials comprising Li alloying nanowires
Geaney H.;Bree G.;Stokes K.;McCarthy K.;Kennedy T.;Ryan K.
(2019) Highlighting the importance of full-cell testing for high performance anode materials comprising Li alloying nanowires
In Journal Of The Electrochemical Society;
DOI: 10.1149/2.0291913jes
[ULIR]

2019

Enhancing the performance of germanium nanowire anodes for Li-ion batteries by direct growth on textured copper
Geaney H.;Bree G.;Stokes K.;Collins G.;Aminu I.;Kennedy T.;Ryan K.
(2019) Enhancing the performance of germanium nanowire anodes for Li-ion batteries by direct growth on textured copper
In Chemical Communications;
DOI: 10.1039/c9cc03579f

2017

Solution synthesis of lead seeded germanium nanowires and branched nanowire networks and their application as Li-ion battery anodes
Flynn, G,Palaniappan, K,Sheehan, M,Kennedy, T,Ryan, KM
(2017) Solution synthesis of lead seeded germanium nanowires and branched nanowire networks and their application as Li-ion battery anodes
In Nanotechnology;
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa72c7
[ULIR]

2017

Behavior of Germanium and Silicon Nanowire Anodes with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
Kim, G.-T.;Kennedy, T.;Brandon, M.;Geaney, H.;Ryan, K.M.;Passerini, S.;Appetecchi, G.B.;
(2017) Behavior of Germanium and Silicon Nanowire Anodes with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
In Acs Nano;
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b01705

2017

Direct Synthesis of Alloyed Si1-xGex Nanowires for Performance-Tunable Lithium Ion Battery Anodes
Stokes, K,Geaney, H,Flynn, G,Sheehan, M,Kennedy, T,Ryan, KM
(2017) Direct Synthesis of Alloyed Si1-xGex Nanowires for Performance-Tunable Lithium Ion Battery Anodes
In Acs Nano;
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b04523

2017

Understanding the influence of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance and morphology evolution of silicon nanowire based lithium-ion battery anodes
Kennedy, T,Brandon, M,Laffir, F,Ryan, KM
(2017) Understanding the influence of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance and morphology evolution of silicon nanowire based lithium-ion battery anodes
In Journal Of Power Sources;
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.05.093

2017

Behavior of Germanium and Silicon Nanowire Anodes with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
Kim, GT,Kennedy, T,Brandon, M,Geaney, H,Ryan, KM,Passerini, S,Appetecchi, GB
(2017) Behavior of Germanium and Silicon Nanowire Anodes with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
In Acs Nano;
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b01705

2016

Advances in the Application of Silicon and Germanium Nanowires for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
Tadhg Kennedy, Michael Brandon, Kevin M. Ryan
(2016) Advances in the Application of Silicon and Germanium Nanowires for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
In Advanced Materials;

2016

ChemInform Abstract: Advances in the Application of Silicon and Germanium Nanowires for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
Tadhg Kennedy;Michael Brandon;Kevin M. Ryan;
(2016) ChemInform Abstract: Advances in the Application of Silicon and Germanium Nanowires for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
In Cheminform;
DOI: 10.1002/chin.201636250

2015

Nanowire Heterostructures Comprising Germanium Stems and Silicon Branches as High-Capacity Li-Ion Anodes with Tunable Rate Capability
Kennedy, T,Bezuidenhout, M,Palaniappan, K,Stokes, K,Brandon, M,Ryan, KM
(2015) Nanowire Heterostructures Comprising Germanium Stems and Silicon Branches as High-Capacity Li-Ion Anodes with Tunable Rate Capability
In Acs Nano;
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02528

2015

Erratum: High density and patternable growth of silicon, germanium and alloyed SiGe nanowires by a rapid anneal protocol (Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2015) 3 (7455-7462))
Bezuidenhout, M.;Kennedy, T.;Belochapkine, S.;Guo, Y.;Mullane, E.;Kiely, P.A.;Ryan, K.M.;
(2015) Erratum: High density and patternable growth of silicon, germanium and alloyed SiGe nanowires by a rapid anneal protocol (Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2015) 3 (7455-7462))
In Journal Of Materials Chemistry C;
DOI: 10.1039/c5tc90134k

2015

High density and patternable growth of silicon, germanium and alloyed SiGe nanowires by a rapid anneal protocol
Bezuidenhout, M,Kennedy, T,Belochapkine, S,Guo, Y,Mullane, E,Kiely, PA,Ryan, KM
(2015) High density and patternable growth of silicon, germanium and alloyed SiGe nanowires by a rapid anneal protocol
In Journal Of Materials Chemistry C;
DOI: 10.1039/c5tc01389e

2014

A Rapid, Solvent-Free Protocol for the Synthesis of Germanium Nanowire Lithium-Ion Anodes with a Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability
Mullane, E,Kennedy, T,Geaney, H,Ryan, KM
(2014) A Rapid, Solvent-Free Protocol for the Synthesis of Germanium Nanowire Lithium-Ion Anodes with a Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability
In ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces;
DOI: 10.1021/am5045168

2014

High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network
Kennedy, T,Mullane, E,Geaney, H,Osiak, M,O'Dwyer, C,Ryan, KM
(2014) High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network
In Nano Letters;
DOI: 10.1021/nl403979s
[ULIR]

2013

Synthesis of Tin Catalyzed Silicon and Germanium Nanowires in a Solvent-Vapor System and Optimization of the Seed/Nanowire Interface for Dual Lithium Cycling
Mullane, E,Kennedy, T,Geaney, H,Dickinson, C,Ryan, KM
(2013) Synthesis of Tin Catalyzed Silicon and Germanium Nanowires in a Solvent-Vapor System and Optimization of the Seed/Nanowire Interface for Dual Lithium Cycling
In Chemistry Of Materials;
DOI: 10.1021/cm400367v

2013

Epitaxial growth of visible to infra-red transparent conducting In2O3 nanodot dispersions and reversible charge storage as a Li-ion battery anode
Osiak, M,Khunsin, W,Armstrong, E,Kennedy, T,Torres, CMS,Ryan, KM,O'Dwyer, C
(2013) Epitaxial growth of visible to infra-red transparent conducting In2O3 nanodot dispersions and reversible charge storage as a Li-ion battery anode
In Nanotechnology;
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/6/065401
[ULIR]

2013

Core-Shell Tin Oxide, Indium Oxide, and Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles on Silicon with Tunable Dispersion: Electrochemical and Structural Characteristics as a Hybrid Li-Ion Battery Anode
Osiak, MJ,Armstrong, E,Kennedy, T,Torres, CMS,Ryan, KM,O'Dwyer, C
(2013) Core-Shell Tin Oxide, Indium Oxide, and Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles on Silicon with Tunable Dispersion: Electrochemical and Structural Characteristics as a Hybrid Li-Ion Battery Anode
In ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces;
DOI: 10.1021/am4023169

2012

High Density Growth of Indium seeded Silicon Nanowires in the Vapor phase of a High Boiling Point Solvent
Geaney, H,Kennedy, T,Dickinson, C,Mullane, E,Singh, A,Laffir, F,Ryan, KM
(2012) High Density Growth of Indium seeded Silicon Nanowires in the Vapor phase of a High Boiling Point Solvent
In Chemistry Of Materials;
DOI: 10.1021/cm301023j
[ULIR]

2012

High density growth of indium seeded silicon nanowires in the vapor phase of a high boiling point solvent
Geaney, H.;Kennedy, T.;Dickinson, C.;Mullane, E.;Singh, A.;Laffir, F.;Ryan, K.M.;
(2012) High density growth of indium seeded silicon nanowires in the vapor phase of a high boiling point solvent
In Chemistry Of Materials;
DOI: 10.1021/cm301023j

Conference Publications

2014

ECS Meeting Abstracts
Kennedy, Tadhg and Mullane, Emma and Geaney, Hugh and Osiak, Michal and O'Dwyer, Colm and Ryan, Kevin M
(2014) ECS Meeting Abstracts

2014

Meeting Abstracts
Kennedy, Tadhg and Mullane, Emma and Geaney, Hugh and Osiak, Michal and O'Dwyer, Colm and Ryan, Kevin M
(2014) Meeting Abstracts

2013

ECS Transactions
Osiak M.;Armstrong E.;Kennedy T.;Torres C.;Ryan K.;O'Dwyer C.
(2013) ECS Transactions
In Ecs Transactions;
DOI: 10.1149/05310.0001ecst

2013

ECS Transactions
Glynn C.;Osiak M.;McSweeney W.;Lotty O.;Jones K.;Geaney H.;Quiroga-González E.;Holmes J.;O'Dwyer C.
(2013) ECS Transactions
In Ecs Transactions;
DOI: 10.1149/05306.0025ecst

2013

ECS Transactions
Osiak M.;Khunsin W.;Armstrong E.;Kennedy T.;Sotomayor Torres C.;Ryan K.;O'Dwyer C.
(2013) ECS Transactions
In Ecs Transactions;
DOI: 10.1149/05306.0053ecst