Key Info

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (Graduate Entry)

Course code
LM101
Duration
4 Years
Course leader
Dr Helena McKeague
Email
medicalschool@ul.ie
Tel
00 353 61 234820
Admissions
Tel
Tel 00 353 61 202015
Queries

Why Study Medicine at UL?

UL’s BM BS Graduate Entry Medical Programme is open to graduates from any discipline. It has a highly innovative curriculum which offers you the opportunity to complete undergraduate medical training in four years in an environment specifically designed for graduate students. During your four years of study, you will be taught the basic medical and clinical sciences necessary to form the basis for postgraduate training and for a career in any branch of medicine.

What you will Study

The curriculum is taught in a traditional academic year. Years 1 & 2 are taught on campus and consist of 33 teaching weeks per year starting in August. 

Years 3 & 4 commence in July and consist of clinical training, where you will rotate through the major clinical disciplines in affiliated hospitals and General Practices.

The curriculum has three main modules or domains:

This centres on the knowledge of the structure, function and development of the normal human body at all levels of organisation, from molecular and cellular to the whole individual. It encompasses the knowledge of the causes and consequences of disease, injury and abnormal development; and of evidence-based strategies for treatment and prevention of disease. This module will largely be delivered through Problem-Based Learning (PBL), an educational technique that involves student learning in small-group tutorials. In all, students spend five hours per week in PBL tutorials.

In Years 3 & 4, the aim is not only to continue to build an understanding of pathophysiology and relevant basic biomedical science but to promote effective reasoning and decision-making in everyday clinical settings. While students will continue to take a high level of responsibility for their own learning, they will be guided by well-defined educational outcomes and will be supervised by a range of Clinical Supervisors who will be specifically contracted to provide teaching, supervision and mentoring. Over time, students will have increasing exposure to disease processes and particularly to the diagnosis of illness and to disease management.

Clinical Skills covers the skills required by a doctor for direct patient contact, including consultation and communication skills, practical clinical skills and procedures, and emergency care - and to constructive interaction with other health professionals. Practicals relevant to the basic sciences will centre on anatomical teaching, which students will learn through surface anatomy on live humans, anatomical models, plastinated anatomical specimens, prosected specimens and through medical imaging. Clinical skills are largely taught in a 'Clinical Skills Resource Unit' on the UL campus, while Anatomical Skills are largely taught in a 'Anatomical Skills Resource Unit' on campus. Clinical Skills are taught twice a week for two hours. Anatomical Skills sessions take place once a week for two hours.

In Years 3 & 4, the teaching of clinical skills will build on what students have already been taught in Years 1 & 2. However, clinical skills teaching in the latter years will largely involve real patients, encountered in 'real-life' clinical settings such as the GP surgery, the hospital bedside, the operating theatre and the out-patient clinic. In addition, each of the clinical disciplines will deliver a full half-day each week of formal clinical skills teaching that is relevant to that discipline. For example, examination of the foetal heart will be taught during the clinical placement in Obstetrics & Gynaecology while students will acquire Advanced Life Support (ALS) skills during their clinical placement in Surgery & Related Disciplines.

The Professional Competencies module embeds the generic skills, attitudes and behaviours that help doctors successfully manage several issues in professional life. The module spans the four years in the School. 

The programme is developed from the Irish Medical Council's "Guide to Professional Conduct and Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners", 8th edition 2019, and it is based on its "Three Pillars of Professionalism" – Partnership, Practice, and Performance.

Partnership

Quality patient care depends on working closely with patients, colleagues and other health professionals. Students learn the importance of trust as a critical professional quality. The module imbues the importance of excellent communication, respect for patient autonomy, confidentiality and consent. Partnership studies teach interprofessional communication, conflict resolution, healthcare resource utilisation, leadership and management. Social partnership studies teach understanding diversity, distributive justice, health economics, advocacy, social and community healthcare and public health and occupational medicine. Over the four years, students learn these competencies from the beginning, through the Early Patient Contact Programme, Problem Based Learning, formal lectures, group assignments, written reflections and student-selected modules.  

Practice

The elements of good professional practice include Health Law and Ethics, Self-Care, Health Psychology, Recordkeeping, and Informatics. The module focuses on the values and behaviours that support good patient care. Students learn patient centred care through high-quality consultation by listening to patients, by understanding their values and preferences.  Health and Illness are studied in the broader context of family, culture and society and explores community, political and economic influences.

Performance

Performance studies teach safe practice, taking in: systems analysis, error, human factors, situation awareness, quality development, risk management, complaints, open disclosure, health care governance and poor professional performance. Self-care and self-management are emphasised from early on to control stress and avoid "burn-out". Safe prescribing is also taught throughout the module. Students learn research methods and ethics, clinical audit, critical appraisal and biostatistics to practice evidence-based medicine. Students employ these skills in Year 4, completing a project of either original research, clinical audit or a scientific literature review.

The Professional Competencies module is integrated from the beginning of the course and is relevant to all medical disciplines for the professional life of doctors.

These domains or themes run concurrently and underpin all learning across the four years. They are designed to ensure that all aspects of the skills required to become a doctor are addressed, from the sciences underpinning a rational approach to diagnosis and management to an awareness of the importance of personal development.

The first two years of the course are structured around Problem-Based Learning (PBL). This is backed up by a small number of lectures. There will also be structured clinical skills teaching and anatomical skills teaching. Teaching in the Professional Competencies takes the form of lectures, tutorials, workshops and seminars on topics such as psychology, public health, health law & ethics and medical sociology. All sessions are focused towards the topic of the week and exploring it from different perspectives including the scientific, sociological, public health, legal and patient experience. This means that everything you learn is done in the context in which you will use it when you practise as a doctor.

In each of the first two years, the curriculum is further divided into six learning units, covering different topic areas. Areas covered by each unit include:

  • Life Structure: Musculoskeletal system, Rheumatology, Orthopaedics, Trauma, Plastic Surgery, Skin & Dermatology
  • Life Cycle: Reproduction & Development, Child Health (Paediatrics), Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Sexual Health, Ageing, Death
  • Life Maintenance: Alimentary System, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Renal Medicine, Urology, Nutrition
  • Life Protection: Immunology, Infection, Haematology, Oncology, Preventative Medicine, Genito- Urinary Medicine
  • Life Support: Cardiology/ Cardiovascular Surgery, Respiratory Medicine, ENT
  • Life Control: Nervous system, Neurology/ Neurosurgery, Vision & Ophthalmology, Psychiatry, Psychology

Module Codes and Titles (further information on each module can be found on The University's Book of Modules)

Year 1  
BM4001 Knowledge of Health & Illness 1
BM4011 Critical & Anatomical Skills 1
BM4021 Professional Competencies 1
Year 2  
BM4002 Knowledge of Health & Illness 2
BM4012 Clinical & Anatomical Skills 2
BM4022 Professional Competencies 2

 

In Year 3, all students will be located in the General Practice/Primary Care setting in one of 6 Primary Care Teaching Networks (PCTNs) across Ireland for 18 weeks. For the remainder of Year 3, students will undergo hospital-based clinical training in Medicine and Surgery. Three weeks in Year 3 is devoted to the SSM.

In Year 4, students will spend 6 weeks of Clinical Training in each of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Psychiatry. They will also undertake another 6 weeks in Medicine & Related Specialties and a further 6 weeks in Surgery and Related Specialties. This will involve rotations through a number of affiliated hospitals across Ireland. Six weeks in Year 4 is devoted to the SSM.

Students that are placed in University Hospital Limerick (UHL) for their Year 3 Medicine and Surgery rotations must complete their senior cycle of Medicine and Surgery rotations in an affiliated hospital in Year 4 or vice versa. 

Module Codes and Titles (further information on each module can be found on The University's Book of Modules)

Year 3  
BM4003 General Practice / Primary Care
BM4053 Medicine 1
BM4063 Surgery 1
BM4023 Professional Competencies 3
   
Year 4  
BM4034 Medicine 2
BM4044 Surgery 2
BM4054 Obstetrics & Gynaecology
BM4064 Paediatrics
BM4074 Psychiatry
BM4084 Professional Competencies 4

 

Throughout Years 3 and 4 of the programme, students are placed in clinical settings. The School currently has six affiliated teaching hospitals and six General Practice/Primary Care networks as outlined below.

In Year 3, all students will be located in the General Practice/Primary Care setting in one of the school's Primary Care Teaching Networks (PCTNs) for 18 weeks. For the remainder of Year 3, students will undergo hospital-based clinical training in Medicine and Surgery. Three weeks in Year 3 is devoted to Special Study Module (SSM).

In Year 4, students will spend 6 weeks of Clinical Training in each of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Paediatrics and Psychiatry. They will also undertake another 6 weeks in Medicine & Related Specialities and a further 6 weeks in Surgery & Related Specialities. Six weeks in Year 4 is devoted to SSM.

All students should expect to be placed outside of Limerick at some stage during their clinical training and potentially for more than one disipline/rotation. With respect to Medicine and Surgery, all students that are placed in the Mid-Western Regional hospital network for Year 3 Medicine and Surgery rotations must complete their senior cycle of Medicine and Surgery rotations in an affiliated hospital in Year 4

School of Medicine Teaching Hospitals Teaching Discipline(s)
Mid-West Regional Hospital Network Medicine, Surgery, OBGYN, Paediatrics, Psychiatry
Portiuncula Hospital, Ballinasloe Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics
South Tipperary General Hospital, Clonmel Medicine, Surgery
St. Luke's Hospital, Kilkenny Medicine, Surgery
Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore Medicine, Surgery
Midland Regional Hospital Portlaoise Psychiatry

GENERAL PRACTICE / PRIMARY CARE NETWORKS

  1. Limerick/Mallow/Charleville
  2. Clare
  3. Kerry
  4. South Tipperary / Mallow / Mitchelstown / Fermoy
  5. South East
  6. Midlands

Further Information

The ‘problems’ are highly structured hypothetical clinical cases, each of which takes a week to work through. Each semester, students are divided into groups of seven or eight, each with its own tutor in a tutorial room, with PC, state of the art AV equipment and walls lined with whiteboards. The group meets with the tutor to work through the week’s case. The tutor does not act as a teacher, but as a facilitator, guiding your group through the sequence of steps which have been devised to help students learn from the clinical cases. Each step and new development in the case (such as results of investigations or details of drugs prescribed) is only given out after the group has finished discussing the previous step.

By working through the problem and hypothesising about what is wrong with the patient, the PBL group comes up with a list of learning issues that represent the key knowledge needed to understand what is happening to the patient. The group members then independently research these learning issues (also known as learning objectives) in their own time. At the next PBL tutorial, each group discusses what they have learned and the tutor distributes the next stage of the problem. The new information is discussed, new learning issues arrived at, and members again research independently.

The group report back again and the final stage of the problem is explored and the case concluded. By this time, the group is likely to have worked through:

  • The original presentation of the patient (either at A&E, an outpatient clinic or a GP clinic)
  • The history taken by the doctor
  • The examination findings
  • Any investigations ordered and their findings (e.g. Blood results, x-rays, biopsies, etc)
  • The course of the patient's illness (over hours, days, weeks, months or years) and the impact of this on the patient's life
  • Treatment (pharmacological, surgical, psychiatric, etc)
  • The involvement of family & others close to the patient
  • Any complications that might have arisen
  • The outcome of the case (including rehabilitation, on-going community care, etc.)

Independent learning times are not just about reading from textbooks. During these times, you are encouraged to visit and make use of the facilities of the Anatomical Skills Education Unit and Clinical Skills Education Unit.

Staff will be on hand to provide support in whatever area you feel you need it. However, to a large extent, students in the programme will be both encouraged and expected to assume a high level of responsibility for their own learning. Students will not be ‘spoon fed’ and there is a deliberate strategy to minimise the amount of didactic teaching in the curriculum.

During the first two years, The Early Patient Contact Programme at UL- GEMS gives students an opportunity to interact with patients. In the first semester, students in groups of three are assigned a patient from an affiliated general practice. The majority of patients assigned to students in the programme have a chronic illness e.g. Diabetes, Cystic Fibrosis, Multiple Sclerosis and many have multiple illnesses. Some students may be assigned an expectant mother where they will monitor her progress during pregnancy and subsequently the early development of her child. Over the course of the following 24 months, students will get to know their patient as a person and how their illness and their illness experiences have affected their lives.

Students will be expected to interact with their patient in a variety of different settings e.g. the patient’s home, in the patient’s GP’s surgery and at their hospital clinic appointments. They may even accompany their patients to the operating theatre if they need surgery. The early patient contact programme helps students understand both health and illness and how each are managed from a patient’s perspective. The programme will also help students to appreciate the strengths and deficiencies of the health services and provide them with some insight into the relationships between providers and consumers of healthcare. Finally, the experiences students get on the early patient contact programme will assist them in their learning of their classroom-based subjects in particular Special Study Modules (SSMs) allow students to study in-depth areas that are of particular interest to them. In total, students undertake three SSMs, one in each of Years 2, 3 and 4. Students have a considerable choice over the subject of these projects, but the format for assessment is prescribed. Some students might choose to undertake their SSM locally and others may go abroad to complete these electives.

Special Study Modules (Electives) allow students to study in-depth areas that are of particular interest to them. In total, students undertake three SSMs, one in each of Years 2, 3 and 4. Students have a considerable choice over the subject of these projects, but the format for assessment is prescribed. Some students might choose to undertake their SSM locally and others may go abroad to complete these electives.

Interested in completing clinical electives overseas?

Students registered on the BMBS programme can opt to complete clinical electives overseas. Completing a clinical elective in North America is essential to securing a residency in the United States or Canada.

The School of Medicine has entered into formal arrangements with McMaster University and Rutgers University to provide our students with clinical electives. In addition to our formal arrangements, strong links have been forged with a number of North American medical schools to provide our students with clinical electives in a variety of specialties. Feedback from North American institutions that have enrolled UL School of Medicine students on elective programmes have commented on their clinical proficiency and exceptional medical communication skills. View further information under Partner Universities below

Students applying for an elective while on the programme are supported by members of the School of Medicine admin team, Stephane Pinson and Emmeline Searson.

Queries to MedicineElectives@ul.ie

Looking To Complete An Elective In Ireland From Overseas?

The BMBS Incoming elective programme is facilitated through our network of overseas partners. We are happy to accommodate external students seeking elective placements over the summer months. In the case of summer elective placements the School only accommodates students from institutions that have an existing MOU with UL School of Medicine.

Queries to MedicineElectives@ul.ie

UL School of Medicine is also a member of VSLO. The AAMC Visiting Student Learning Opportunities (VSLO) programme helps medical and public health students connect with institutions offering short-term elective opportunities that can enhance their medical education. These elective opportunities include observerships, summer research programmes, clinical opportunities, away rotations, away electives, clinical rotations and visiting opportunities.

Offered by participating host institutions in the U.S. and around the world, elective opportunities are available in teaching hospitals, community clinics, and urban or rural sites and are open to preclinical, clinical, or final-year students, as determined by the host institution.

The VSLO Application Service (sometimes referred to as VSAS), which enables students to browse and apply to electives offered by host institutions.

The VSLO program includes

  • A collaborative network of US and international institutions.
  • Training, information and guidance for students and institutions.
  • Telephone and email support to students and institutions.

The School of Medicine currently has agreements with the following institutions

  • Michael G DeGroote School of Medicine,McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario
  • Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay
  • Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Additionally, students have completed electives at the following locations

  • Memorial University, St John’s, Newfoundland 
  • University of Toronto, Toronto
  • Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio 
  • Memorial Sloane Kettering Clinic, New York
  • Weill Cornell University, New York
  • Warren Alpert at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island
  • Johns Hopkins, Baltimore
  • Morristown Medical Centre, New Jersey
  • University of Miami 
  • Wyoming Medical Centre, Wyoming, USA

UL School of Medicine continues to expand its network of partners overseas and encourages institutions looking to develop partnerships to contact the school at MedicineInternational@ul.ie

Programme Brochure

EU Applicants Brochure

Non EU Applicants Programme Brochure

Entry Requirements

Additional considerations

EU Entry Requirements

  • Candidates must hold a minimum 2.1 (second class honours, grade one) result in their first honours bachelor degree (NFQ Level 8).
  • For candidates who meet this requirement, GAMSAT (Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admissions Test) will then be used as the sole instrument to select students for the programme.
  • Graduates from any discipline may apply.

Non-EU Entry Requirements

  • Candidates must hold a minimum 2.1 (second class honours, grade one) result in their first honours bachelor degree (NFO Level 8).
  • For candidates who meet this requirement, GAMSAT (Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admissions Test), or in the case of North American applicants, MCAT will be used as an instrument for selection.
  • Non-EU applicants must also attend for interview as part of the selection process.

Validity of GAMSAT scores

GAMSAT scores are considered valid for two years. For example, results from GAMSAT 2021 will be valid for application to the Graduate Entry Medicine Programme at UL in 2021 or 2022 but not in 2023.

Click here for GAMSAT information in Ireland 

 

Further Information

Further information on the BM BS Graduate Entry Medical Programme can also be obtained from:

Admissions Office
University of Limerick 
Limerick, Ireland.
Tel: 00-353-61-202015
Fax: 00-353-61-334859

Non EU applicants should contact The Atlantic Bridge Programme for information on admissions and applications at https://www.atlanticbridge.com/medicine/schools/ul/

Non-EU Entry Requirements

Filters

How to Apply

Where are you applying from? How to Apply
Ireland Irish students must apply to UL via the CAO. More information can be found here. 
The UK  Students who have completed their A-Levels can apply to UL via the CAO. More information can be found on the Academic Registry website. 
The EU EU Students can apply to UL via the CAO. More information can be found on the Academic Registry website.
Non-EU country If you are outside of the EU, you should contact The Atlantic Bridge Programme for admissions, applications and information on financial aid

Fees and Funding

In addition to the course fees (outlined below), all students are required to pay a Healthcare Screening cost of €290 in Year 1.  This covers all immunisations and health screening across the four years of the programme.

Students are also required to have use of a laptop and mobile device (i.e. iPad/tablet). Students can purchase an iPad for use through the programme (including clinical years) directly from the School. The cost is in the region of €600. Further information on how to purchase is available here. The School also offers the option of configuring a student's own iPad specifically for the programme. Details can be found here.

Student course fees are broken into three components - Student contribution, Student Centre Levy and Tuition Fees.

A number of illustrative examples of fees for this course based on the current fee levels have been set out in the tables below.

An explanation of the components, how to determine status and the criteria involved is provided below the examples as is a list of possible scholarships and funding available.

EU Students with Free fees status in receipt of a SUSI grant

HEA pays Tuition Fees €15,458
SUSI pays Student contribution €3,000
Student pays Student Centre Levy €92
€18,550

EU Students with Free fees status not in receipt of a grant

HEA pays Tuition Fees €15,458
Student pays Student contribution €3,000
Student pays Student Centre Levy €92
€18,550

Students with EU fee status not in receipt of a grant

Student pays Tuition Fees €15,458
Student pays Student contribution €3,000
Student pays Student Centre Levy €92
€18,550

Non-EU Students

Student pays Tuition Fees €51,846
Student pays Student Centre Levy €92
€51,938

Student course fees are comprised of three components:

Student Contribution

Annual charge set by the government for all full-time third level students. All students are liable unless they have been approved for a grant by Student Universal Support Ireland (SUSI). Please refer to https://www.studentfinance.ie to determine your eligibility for a grant and for instructions on how to apply. The curent student contribution is set at €3000.

Student Centre Levy

All students are liable to pay the Student Centre Levy of €90. Please note the Student Centre Levy is not covered by the SUSI Grant.

Tuition Fees

These are based on Residency, Citizenship, Course requirements.

Review the three groups of criteria to determine your fee status as follows

  1. Residency
    • You must have been living in an EU/EEA member state or Switzerland for at least 3 of the 5 years before starting your course
  2. Citizenship
    • You must be a citizen of an EU/EEA member state or Switzerland or have official refugee status
  3. Course Requirements (all must be met)
    • You must be a first time full-time undergraduate (Exceptions are provided for students who hold a Level 6 or Level 7 qualification and are progressing to a Level 8 course in the same general area of study).
    • You must be undertaking a full-time undergraduate course of at least 2 year’s duration
    • You cannot be undertaking a repeat year of study at the same level unless evidence of exceptional circumstances eg serious illness is provided (in which case this condition may be waived)

Depending on how you meet these criteria your status will be one of the following -

  • Free Fee Status: You satisfy all three categories (1, 2 and 3) and therefore are eligible for the Higher Education Authority’s Free Fees scheme.
  • EU Fee Status: You satisfy the citizenship and/or residency criteria but fail to satisfy the course requirements and are liable to EU fees
  • Non EU Fee Status: You do not meet either the citizenship or residency criteria and are therefore liable to Non EU fees.

More information about fees can be found on the Finance website

These scholarships are available for this course

These scholarships are available for all courses

Your Future Career

Internships for UL Graduates

In Ireland, the 'Internship' is the first year of medical practice following graduation from School of Medicine.  During the Intern year, medical graduates are provisionally registered with the Medical Council.  Full registration with the Medical Council follows successful completion of the Intern year.   
 
To date there have been sufficient Intern places available for all Irish/EU medical school graduates.  In line with government policy, as the number of medical graduates increases, the number of Intern places is also expected to expand.

For International students in all Irish medical schools, the future is less certain to the extent that Government policy is to advise all overseas students that for them, INTERNSHIP PLACES CANNOT BE GUARANTEED.  However, UL will do everything in its power to optimise the employment prospects and opportunities for further training for all of its students following their graduation.  For example, in the case of North American students, we support students seeking elective placements in teaching centres in Canada and the US, so that students can form relationships that will later help them to secure good residency training programmes.

Careers open to you with a degree in Medicine include;

  • Medical Practice in all disciplines such as Family Medicine, Hospital Medicine, Public Health Medicine etc
  • Medical Research
  • Medical Education
  • Medical Administration
  • Medical Journalism

Read About our Graduates

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Graduate - Eileen McMahon

There are a lot of early starts and late evenings in medicine! Usually, the ward round would start at about 8am and we would see each of the patients in succession. This might take anywhere from 1-5 hours depending on how many patients are under the team at that time. During the ward round, I would also have to answer any bleeps from nurses or other staff members and may also get called to an emergency situation e.g. a cardiac arrest. After the ward round, there are lots of jobs that need to get done like ordering scans and following up on results of investigations, ringing for consults and liaising with other staff members. Some patients will also need procedures undertaken like taking blood, or a catheter put in etc.

I think UL’s problem-based (PBL) approach to learning really helped to prepare me for my role as a doctor. During our PBL sessions, we encountered cases in which patients could present with anything from abdominal pain to a severe headache and it was our job as medical students to figure out what could be wrong with the patient as well as to come up with investigations and a management plan. Working now as a doctor, this process is identical - you go through the same steps as you did as a student, thanks to UL’s problem-solving approach to teaching medicine.

Eileen’s tip:
I think there is a lot of pressure for Leaving Cert students to know exactly what they want to do immediately when they finish school. My advice is take your time in deciding what you want to do; but if you do start something and find out you don’t like it then don’t be afraid to move on. I think there’s something out there for everyone - you just might need to be a bit more creative about how you get there and be prepared to work hard to get it!

Laura Greene, BMBS Graduate - Elective Student perspective

“I pursued a mini-fellowship in the Research department of the Rothman Institute in Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia for a four-week period in June of last summer. This was a fantastic opportunity for a medical student such as myself to get involved with research projects in a highly productive and internationally well-respected institute. The research department is made up of a friendly and motivated international team of research fellows, clinical researchers, database co-ordinators, statisticians and medical students, all working alongside one another. As a result of this fellowship, I’m involved with two research papers which, upon completion, are both likely to be submitted to high-impact journals. This fellowship provides a unique opportunity to be part of the very research that serves to improve current orthopaedic surgical practices and management with the possibility of having your own name attached to these wide-reaching publications. This was a wonderful experience which was made possible by the Department of Orthopaedics in the Midlands Regional Hospital Tullamore and one I would highly recommend.”

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Laura Greene School of Medicine Graduate
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Dermot Murphy BMBS Grduate

Dermot Murphy, BMBS Graduate

“Many different areas of orthopaedics are covered, including hip, knee, spine, and shoulder. There are medical researchers from all over the world working there. Before I went, I had little experience or knowledge of orthopaedic surgery, or orthopaedic research, but the time spent there was enjoyable and very enlightening. I became involved with two interesting projects which upon completion will be submitted to professional journals. This is an opportunity to strengthen one’s CV while also gaining invaluable research skills. I found everyone at the Institute to be both welcoming and helpful. The Institute is known all around the world as a leader in orthopaedics. It was a fantastic opportunity to spend time with some of the surgeons and researchers who have established the reputation of the Institute. As well as the research I participated in, I was given the opportunity to attend orthopaedic surgeries. The city of Philadelphia is historic and lively. The Institute is located in the centre of the city and near to Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. There are sporting events, historical monuments, cultural and musical events taking place regularly which provide great ways to spend leisure time.”