The main objectives of the Euro-Asia Centre are:

  • to advance Asian and European business, socio-cultural and technical relations through research, consultancy and educational programmes;
  • to serve as a resource centre for those who seek to understand the trade and competitiveness problems facing Europe and Asia in an increasingly globalised world economy;
  • to build positive relations between Europe and Asia by fostering economic development.

Professor Bernadette Andreosso-O'Callaghan, PhD 
Director, Euro-Asia Centre,
Department of Economics, KBS

Professor Edward Moxon Browne, 
Department of Politics, UL

Dr Martin Mullins, 
Department of Accounting and Finance, KBS

Current projects at the Euro-Asia Centre cover the following areas:

  • International Technology Transfer and the Dynamic Impact of the 5th EU Enlargement on ASEAN
  • Determinants of Life Insurance Consumption in India 
  • The EU Asia Strategy - The cases of ASEAN and South Korea 
  • Technology Transfer to China - A Critical Assessment 
  • Political risk and Japanese Investment in China 
  • Keiretsu - Its relevance to and impact on contemporary EU 
  • Economic relations between the EU and South Korea (intra industry and intra-firm trade) 
  • EU-India economic and political relations 
  • European Equity Markets and Money Markets Interlinkages 
  • Family Networks' Impact on SME Development in Albania 
  • Re-estimating Japan's Economic Growth during the "Lost Decade" 
  • Increasing Global Interdependency and vulnerability - Examining the EU-US- China triangle 
  • International Information Flows and Economic Growth in Japan since the 1880s 
  • Socio-economic development in the Bandung countries since 1960 
  • Energy co-operation in East Asia - Lessons from the EU

The Centre is also participating in a joint Asia-Link project with other European and Asian Universities, entitled "Internationally Co-ordinated Curriculum Development for Modules in Intercultural Communication." For more information, see the ICCD Project Website.


  • Bernadette Andreosso-O'Callaghan, PhD, Professor of Economics
  • Edward Moxon Browne, PhD, Professor of Politics
  • Martin Mullins, PhD, Lecturer in Insurance
  • Ju Hu, PhD, visiting researcher (2007-2008), Pingdingshan Institute of Technology, PRC
  • Anne Coulon, PhD student
  • Esmeralda Gassie, PhD student
  • Denis Kan, Associated Researcher
  • Orlaith McMahon, PhD student
  • Lucia Morales, PhD student
  • Tomoko Oikawa, PhD student
  • Anuradha Sharma, PhD student
  • Utai Uprasen, PhD student
  • John Lannon, Associated Researcher


  • Research at the Euro-Asia Centre is conducted in close association with Seoul National University (South Korea), Dresden University (Germany), Beijing Institute of Technology (PRC), Dhaka University (Bengladesh), Université Paul Valéry of Montpellier (France), Hitotsubashi University (Japan), Université du Havre (France), Queen's University (UK), Melbourne University (Australia), Chulalongkorn University of Bangkok (Thailand), and the Institut Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI, Paris).


The Euro-Asia Centre receives funding from the following sources:

  • University of Limerick Foundation Research Seed Fund
  • An Bord Tráchtála and Enterprise Ireland//CNRS
  • EU Commission (EU-China Higher Education Programme and Asia Link Project)
  • ASEM Duo Fellowship Program

Books and Edited Books 
Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and B. Zolin (eds) (in press) Current Issues in Economic Integration - Can Asia inspire "the West"?, Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot.

Zolin, B., and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan (eds), 2008 Asia and Europe: Contrasts and Connections, Ca' Foscarini Editrice: Venezia. 

Dzever, S., Jaussaud, J and Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B (eds), 2008, Evolving Corporate Structures and Cultures in Asia, Wiley and Sons ISTE Ltd: London.

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., P. Bassino, S. Dzever and J. Jaussaud (eds), 2007, The Economic Relations between Asia and Europe - Organization, Control and Technology, Chandos Publishing Ltd: Oxford. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and D. Jacobson, 2005, Industrial Economics and Organization. A European Perspective, Mc Graw & Hill: London, New York, 2nd edition. 

Moon, Woosik and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan (eds) 2005, Regional Integration - Europe and Asia Compared, Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, The Economics of European Agriculture, McMillan Press/Palgrave: London, New York. 

Wang, Yanlai, 2003, China's Economic Development and Democratization, Ashgate: Aldershot. 

Cassidy, J., 2002, Japanese Direct Investment in China, Routledge: New York and London. 

Book Chapters 
Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. 2010, 'Korea - EU: A new leader taking a back seat?' in Husar, Jörg, Günther Maihold and Stefan Mair (eds), Europe and New Leading Powers: Towards Partnership in Strategic Policy Areas, Schriftenreihe des Arbeitskreises Europäische Integration e.V (book series Vol. 66), Nomos: Baden-Baden, pp.117-28, ISBN: 9 783832 955908. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and F. Nicolas, 2009, 'Assessing the complementarity between the EU and ASEAN economies,' in Tondl, G., (ed), The EU and Emerging Markets, Springer: Wien and New York, pp.205-33, ISBN: 978-3-211-92661-1. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. 2008, 'Comparing and Contrasting Economic Integration in the Asia Pacific Region and Europe', in Murray, P. (ed), Asia and Europe: Regions in Flux, Chapter 4, pp. 61-83. MacMillan/Palgrave: London, New York. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and J. P. Bassino, 2008, 'To what extent are the EU and Asian Economies vulnerable?', in Dzever, S., J. Jaussaud and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan (eds), Evolving Corporate Structures and Cultures in Asia, pp. 13-28, Wiley and Sons ISTE Ltd: London.

Kan, D., B. Andreosso and H. Lenihan, 2008, 'An Empirical Analysis of the OCA Criteria: the Case of the Asia Pacific Countries', in Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and Zolin, B (eds) Asia and Europe - Connections and Contrasts, pp. 81-106, Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina: Venice.

Oikawa, T, 2008, 'Economic Organisation and Social Solidarity: Can Keiretsu be just an Economic Organisation?', in Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and Zolin, B (eds) Asia and Europe - Connections and Contrasts, pp. 330-46, Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina: Venice

Sharma, A., and M. Mullins, 2008, 'Evolution of Indian Life Insurance: Prospects and Constraints', in Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and Zolin, B (eds) Asia and Europe - Connections and Contrasts, pp. 203-17, Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina: Venice

Uprasen, Utai, 2008, 'The Economic Impact of the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement', in in Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and Zolin, B (eds) Asia and Europe - Connections and Contrasts, pp. 148-63, Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina: Venice 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and J.P. Bassino, 2007, Equity ownership of subsidiaries of Japanese SMEs in China: evidence from firm-level data, in B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, J.P. Bassino, S. Dzever and J. Jaussaud (eds), The Economic Relations between Asia and Europe - Organization, Control and Technology, 99-112, Chandos Publishing Ltd: Oxford. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2007, Merits and limits of the EU development policy, in: Birgit Häese (ed) Culture and Economic Development, Iko Publishers: München. 

Greenford, Mullins, Garvey, Morris, O'Meara, 2006, The Insurance Market in Ireland in Handbook of Insurance: Between Global Dynamics and Local Contingencies, Philadelphia: Wharton 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2005, The economic challenge of enlargement, in Holmes, M (ed.), Ireland and the EU: Nice, enlargement and the future of Europe, Manchester University Press: Manchester, pp. 14-35. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and J.P. Bassino, 2005. 'Socio Economic Convergence in the Bandung Ciountries, 1960-1999', In: Khudori, D., (ed) Bandung 2005: Rethinking Solidarity in Global Society, pp. 39-50, Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta. 

Lannon, J. 2005, 'Information and Communication Technologies: New Global Challenges and Opportunities for Social and Solidarity Movements', In: Khudori, D., (ed) Bandung 2005: Rethinking Solidarity in Global Society, pp. 119-130, Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2005. 'History and Process of European Economic Integration', In: Moon and Andreosso-O'Callaghan (eds), Regional Integration in Europe and Asia, pp. 46-74, Ashgate: London. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2004. 'The role of the Irish state in the catching up process: developmental or growth promoter?', In: Linda Low (ed), Developmental states: Relevancy, redundancy or reconfiguration?, pp. 219-33, Nova Science Publishers: New York and ISEAS: Singapore. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2004. 'The EU "New Strategy" towards the Asia-Pacific Region', In: Heungchong Kim (ed), European Integration and the Asia Pacific Region , pp. 53-67, KIEP: Seoul. 

Holden, Patrick, 2004, 'Strategic intervention or showcase? EU aid as a force for change in Morocco', In: Peter Xuereb (ed), The European Union and the Mediterranean: The Mediterranean's European Challenges, Volume V , pp. 541-60, Malta: EDRC. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2004, The French Economy in the Throes of Increased Openness, In: Royall Frédéric (ed), Contemporary France: An Interdisciplinary Review, pp.71-90, Peter Lang AG, Oxford and New York. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003. "L'évolution de la fonction publique en Irlande: vers une européanisation?" Annuaire Européen d'Administration Publique , XXVI pp.125-36, Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille, Aix en Provence. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., N. Hewitt-Dundas, J. Murray and S. Roper, 2003, 'The Spatial Distribution of Knowledge Creation Capability in Ireland', In: Eoin O'Leary (ed), Irish Regional Development: A New Agenda, pp.125-44. The Liffey Press: Dublin 

Refereed Journal Articles 
Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B, 2009, Economic structural complementarity: how viable is the Korea-EU FTA?, Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 36, Issue 2, 147-67. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B, 2009, How is the EU-ASEAN FTA viewed by ASEAN stakeholders?, Asia-Europe Journal, 7: 1, 63-78. 

Hae-du Hwang and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2009, Energy Cooperation and Emerging Regionalism in North-East Asia: Relative Impact on APEC and ASEM in terms of Inter-Regionalism, Journal of Korea Trade, 13: 1, February, 65-88.

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and F. Nicolas, 2008, What scope for an EU-ASEAN FTA? Journal of World Trade, 42:1, 105-128. 

Killian, S. and M. Mullins, 2008, Taxing Thoughts: Ireland, Tax Competition and the Cost of Intellectual Capital, Accountancy Business And The Public Interest, 7: 1, pp 70-91. 

Mullins, M and Garvey J, 2008, Contemporary Terrorism: Risk Perception in the London Options Market Risk Analysis An International Journal 28:1, Feb. 

Wei, X., B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan and M. von Wuntsch, 2007, German Investment in Ireland and in the CEECs, Intereconomics, 42:3, May/June, 156-166. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and F. Nicolas, 2007, Are the economies of ASEAN and the EU complementary?, ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 24:2, 205-224, August. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and D. Kan 2007. Examination of the Efficient Market Hypothesis - The case of post-crisis Asia Pacific Countries, Journal of Asian Economics, 18:2, 294-313, April. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and F. Nicolas, 2007, Complementarity and Rivalry in 21st Century EU-China Economic Relations, European Foreign Affairs Review, 12:1, 13-38, Spring. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and D. Kan, 2007, Analysis of the Current Account Positions of Four East Asian Countries before the Asian Crisis, Pacific Economic Review, 12:1, 47-61. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and J. Cassidy , 2006, Spatial Determinants of Japanese FDI in China, Japan and the World Economy, 18: 4, December, pp.512-27. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and H. Lenihan 2006, Ireland as a role model for SME development in accession countries, Journal of European Integration, 28: 3, July, pp.277-303. 

Hewitt-Dundas, N., B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, M. Crone and S. Roper, 2005, 'Knowledge Transfers from Multi-national Plants in Ireland', European Urban and Regional Studies , 12:1, 23-43. 

Holden, Patrick, 2005, 'Partnership Lost? The European Union's Mediterranean Aid Programmes', Mediterranean Politics, 10: 1, 19-37. 

Holden, Patrick, 2005, 'Hybrids on the Rim? The EU's Mediterranean Aid Policy', Democratization, 12:5.. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and Yue, G., 2004. Intersectoral Linkages and Key Sectors in China 1987-1997, Asian Economic Journal , 18:2, June, 165-83. 

Wang, Y., N. Rees and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2004. Economic Change and Political Development in China: findings from a public opinion survey , Journal of Contemporary China, 13:39, May, 203-22. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B. and J.P. Bassino, 2003, Measuring the contribution of services to Japanese growth (1975-1995), Asian Business and Management, 2: 2, 223-37. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, Human Capital, Education and Growth - China and India compared, China Report, 39: 1, 39-56. 

Holden, Patrick, 2003, The European Community's MEDA Aid Programme: A Strategic Instrument of Civilian Power? The European Foreign Affairs Review, 8: 3, pp. 347-63. 

Conference Proceedings (refereed) 
Morales, L. and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2010, 'The Global Financial Crisis: World Market or Regional Contagion Effects?', Mid-West Finance Association International Conference, 24-27 Feb, Las Vegas.

Zolin, B., and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2010, 'Long-term food price changes: how important is the speculative element?' International Workshop on 'The current global economic crisis: challenges and responses in Asia and in the EU', February 1 and 2, 2010, University of Ca' Foscari, San Giobbe, Venice. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and U. Uprasen, 2009. 'Impact of the 5th EU Enlargement on ASEAN - A Qualitative Analysis', ICAS 6 Conference, 6-9th August, Daejon, Korea. 

Uprasen, U., and Bernadette Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2009, 'Measuring the impact of protectionism on China: A CGE approach', American Association for Chinese Studies 51st Anniversary Annual Conference, Rollins College Orlando, 16-18 October. 

Uprasen, U., and B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2008, 'Impact of the 5th EU Enlargement on ASEAN', EcoMod International Conference on Policy Modeling, Berlin, 2nd-4th July. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B, 2008, 'The EU FTA strategy in Asia - the case of ASEAN and Korea'. Paper presented to the Irish Institute of Chinese Studies, University College Cork, 25th February (invited paper). 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B and Ju Hu, 2008, 'Is the strategy of technology acquisition in China an indisputable success?', Paper to the International Conference on Regional Integration - Asia and Europe Compared, Università Cà Foscari of Venice, Italy, 16-17th January. 

Morales, L. 2008. 'Do Precious Metals Markets Influence Stock Markets?: A Volatility Approach,' 8th Business Research Conference, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Dubai, UAE, 27-28 March. 

Morales, L. 2008. 'International Transmission Effects of Volatility between Financial Markets in the G-7 since the introduction of the Euro,'MIDWEST Finance Association, 57th Annual Meeting, Marriot River Centre, San Antonio, Texas. USA, 27 February-1 March. 

Oikawa, Tomoko. 2008. 'A keiretsu model for the Japanese kanagata (die and mould) industry,' International Conference on Regional Integration - Asia and Europe Compared, School of Economics, University "Ca' Foscari" of Venice, Italy, 16-17 January. 

Uprasen Utai 2008, 'The Economic Impact of the EU-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement,' International Conference on Regional Integration - Asia and Europe Compared, School of Economics, University "Ca' Foscari" of Venice, Centre for Economic Policy Analysis, Italy, 16-17 January. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2007, 'South Korea - EU: A new leader taking a back seat?,' International Conference Europe and New Leading Powers: Towards Partnership in Strategic Policy Areas, Stiftung für Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin, 20-21 November (invited paper). 

Gassie, E 2007, 'Kinship network and business development in Albania', paper presented at the colloquium New Researchers on Varieties of Capitalism and Socio-economic Change in Central and Eastern Europe, London School of Economics, London, 14th December. 

Killian, S. and M. Mullins, 2007, 'Taxing thoughts: Taxation and the cost of intellectual capital,' invited lecture at Tax Justice Seminar, World Social Forum, Nairobi, Kenya, January. 

Morales, Lucia, 2007, 'International Transmission Effects of Volatility between Financial Markets in developing economies: the case of Latin America,' VII International Finance Conference, Monterrey, Mexico 26th-28th September. 

Morales, L and M. O'Donnell, 2007, 'International Transmission Effects of Volatility Spillovers between Stock Returns and Exchange Rates: Evidence from Greece, Portugal and Spain since the introduction of the Euro,' ATINER Book Proceedings, Athens, Greece. 

Mullins, Martin, 2007, 'Security and Political Risk: International Business in a Challenging Environment,' Academy of International Business (AIB) Conference on Emerging Research Frontiers in International Business Conflict, Nov 28-Dec 1, Miami. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2006, Comparing and contrasting economic integration in the Asia Pacific region and Europe, International Conference on Europe and Asia: Regions in Flux, CERC International Conference, University of Melbourne, 6th-7th December. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and J.P. Bassino 2006. 'Is political risk a factor of ownership and control of Japanese firms in China?', 12th International Euro-Asia Research Conference on Intensified Investments and exchanges between Asia and the West - Organization and Control, Universitat de Barcelona, 1st-2nd June 2006. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2006. 'Educational Bias, Out-migration and Economic Performance in Tibet Autonomous Region', International Seminar on: Migration and Economic Development in the Age of Globalization, Dhaka University, 16 February. 

Gassie, E. 2006 'The EU Development Policies in Albania', in Proceedings of Xth ICYS: Crucial Problems of International Relations Through the Eyes of Young Researchers, (On CD-ROM), Xth International Conference of Young Researchers, Prague, Czech Republic; 

Gassie, E. 2006. 'Enlarging the Concepts Before the Enlargement: the EU in Albania', in Proceedings of CEU Plenary Conference, Europe in Context: Debating the Project, (Online), CEU Plenary Conference, Budapest, Hungary. 

Uprasen Utai, 2006 'Technology Transfer and Productivity Growth in the New Accession Countries,' European Network on Industrial Policy (EUNIP) 9th International Conference, University of Limerick, Ireland, 20-22 June. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and H. Lenihan 2005. "The Governance of Networks in the Shannon Region of Ireland,' Prepared for ESF/SCSS Exploratory Workshop: The Governance of Networks as Determinant of Local Economic Development," San Sebastian, Spain, 15-19 November. 

Hewitt-Dundas, N., B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan and H. Lenihan, 2005, Innovation policy in Ireland and Northern Ireland, 1991 to 2001 - The Changing face of enterprise-level financial incentives for R&D, 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association, CD Rom, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 23-27 August. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., J. Cassidy and E. Sannikovan, 2005, Backward and Forward Linkages in Dalian - China, Academy of International Business Conference, Quebec City, 9-12th July, CD Rom. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., F. Nicolas and X. Wei, 2005, The sustainability of EU-China Economic Relations in the 21st Century - Between Complementarity and Rivalry, Conference on EU, China and the quest for a multilateral world, 4th July, European Economic and Social Committee Building, Brussels (invited paper). 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and J.P. Bassino, 2005, "Socio-economic convergence in Asia (1960-1998) - A regional comparative perspective", 11th International Euro-Asia Research Conference on Government Policy and Business Strategy in Asian Countries - Regional Perspectives, Nanchang, 19-20 May. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., and J.P. Bassino, 2005."Bandung, 50 years after - Has there been socio-economic convergence?", Development Economics Symposium, National University of Ireland, Galway, 14th April. 

Lannon, J. and Halpin, E.F. 2005. "Networking for Human Rights in a Digital World: Information Sharing in the Human Rights Community", IADIS International Conference, e-Society 2005 . Qawra, Malta . 27-30 June 2005. 

Xiaojun Wei and B., Andreosso-O'Callaghan, 2005, "Does the EU Enlargement Change the Distribution of EU FDI Flows to China? A Case Study of German Investment", 16th Annual Conference of the Chinese Economic Association (UK), London, 21st, 22nd March. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan , B., 2004. "The Re-sacralization of Chinese Rural Communities: A Reaction to Economic Surplus?", Discussion Paper, Euro-Asia Workshop on Humanizing Globalization, Nanzan University, Nagoya, 27- 30th April. 

Lannon, J., 2004. "Towards Global Humanisation: Spiritually-based Movements and the Internet", Discussion Paper, Euro-Asia Workshop on Humanizing Globalization, Nanzan University, Nagoya, 27- 30th April. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan , B., and J.P. Bassino, 2004, "Japan's Lost Decade revisited - Deflationary Growth, Globalization and Inequality", 10th International Euro-Asia Research Conference, Yokohama, 28-29 May (with J.P. Bassino), CD Rom. 

Lannon, J., 2004. "New Tools - New Tactics: Human Rights Movements and the Internet". Highway Africa Conference, Grahamstown, South Africa, 15 - 18 Sept, 2004. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, "EU FDI in China's Hinterland: is there a win-win solution?", 15th Annual Conference of the Association for Chinese Economic Studies, Melbourne, 2-3 October. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, "The stagnation of household consumption in Japan", Discussion Paper of C. Horioka's article, Venice Summer Institute Workshop on 'Economic Stagnation' in Japan, Venice, 25/26 July. 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, "L'élargissement de l'Union Européenne - Un défi pour les anciens pays membres?", Maison Franco-Japonaise Tokyo, 3rd June (invited paper). 

Andreosso-O'Callaghan, B., 2003, "The EU new strategy towards the Asia-Pacific Region, Paper to the ECSA Asia Pacific International", Conference on European Integration and the Asia-Pacific Region, Seoul, 30-31 May. 

Holden, Patrick. 2003, "Hybrids on the Rim? The EU's Mediterranean Aid Strategy", Paper presented at the 2nd ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) Conference, Marburg, 18 - 21 September. 

Holden, Patrick, 2003, "Partnership Lost? The EU's Mediterranean Aid Programmes", Paper Presented at the UACES 33rd Annual Conference, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tuesday 2nd - Thursday 4th September. 

McMahon Orlaith., 2003, "Intra-Industry Trade: The EU and South Korea, in Human Capital, Human Resource Management in Asian Development", Proceedings of the IXth International Euro-Asia Research Conference, IAE, Université de Poitiers, France, 5-6 June. 

Siraj, Sanjida M.B., 2003, "Coherence and Poverty Reduction: Congruence and Conflict in EU Development Policy", Paper presented at the Graduate Research Seminar in International Relations, National Committee for the Study of International Affairs, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, Ireland, November 13-14.