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Dr. Laura Cahillane

Biography

Laura is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law, University of Limerick.
She is a first class honours graduate of UCC (BCL (Law and French) 2007, LLM (by Research) 2008, PhD 2012, PGCTHLE 2013).
She was awarded the title of 'College Scholar' twice during her undergraduate studies and spent her third year studying in the Université Robert Schumann, Strasbourg and working part time as a Research Assistant in the European Parliament. Her Research Masters examined the topic of disciplining judges and her PhD, for which she was awarded an IRCHSS Government of Ireland Scholarship, considered the drafting of the 1922 Irish Free State Constitution.
Laura undertook a Post Doctoral Fellowship in UCC and held lectureships in UCC and DCU before joining the School of Law at UL. Her research interests lie in the areas of Constitutional Law, Legal History, Judicial Politics and Comparative Law and she has published nationally and internationally in these areas. Her monograph on the 1922 Constitution was published by Manchester University Press in 2016.
She is a frequent contributor to the media on legal and constitutional issues and has advised the Oireachtas on law reform on a number of occasions. Her work has been cited several times in the Dáil and the Seanad and also by the Irish superior Courts. She is editor-in-chief of the Irish Judicial Studies Journal.

Professional Activities

Award

  • 2021 - Teaching Hero Award
  • 2019 - RFCL Funding
  • 2014 - Book Completion Grant
  • 2013 - Arthur Cox Foundation Grant
  • 2009 - Faculty of Law Scholarship
  • 2009 - IRCHSS Government of Ireland Scholar
  • 2007 - College Scholar
  • 2005 - College Scholar

Association

  • member, American Society of Legal History
  • member, Irish Legal History Society
  • Member, Irish Society of Comparative Law
  • Founder, Constitution Project

Publications

Books

2020

Byrne and McCutcheon on the Irish Legal System
Raymond Byrne, Paul McCutcheon, Laura Cahillane and Emma Roche-Cagney
(2020) Byrne and McCutcheon on the Irish Legal System
Dublin : Bloomsbury

2020

Constitutional Law in Ireland - second edition
Laura Cahillane and Seán Ó Conaill
(2020) Constitutional Law in Ireland - second edition
Netherlands : Wolters Kluwer

2017

Constitutional Law: Ireland
Laura Cahillane, Seán Ó Conaill
(2017) Constitutional Law: Ireland
Europe : Kluwer International Publishing

2016

Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2016) Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
UK : Manchester University Press

Book Chapters

2021

Popular Sovereignty under the 1922 Constitution: Theory and Reality
Laura Cahillane
(2021) Popular Sovereignty under the 1922 Constitution: Theory and Reality
In Constitutional Change and Popular Sovereignty: Populism, Politics and the Law in Ireland ; Cahill, O'Cinnéide, Ó Conaill & O'Mahony(Ed.) Oxfordshire : Routledge

2019

Researching Law and Legal Research: Introducing the Case Studies Approach
Laura Cahillane
(2019) Researching Law and Legal Research: Introducing the Case Studies Approach
In Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice; Dublin : Clarus Press

2019

Researching the Irish Free State Constitution: Combining Law and History
Laura Cahillane
(2019) Researching the Irish Free State Constitution: Combining Law and History
In Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice ; Laura Cahillane(Ed.) Dublin : Clarus Press

2019

Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice
Laura Cahillane and Jennifer Schweppe
(2019) Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice
In Introducing the Case Studies Approach; Cahillane, L. and Schweppe, J(Ed.) Dublin : Clarus Press

2018

The Treaty: An Historical and Legal Interpretation
Laura Cahillane and Paul Murray
(2018) The Treaty: An Historical and Legal Interpretation
In The Anglo-Irish Treaty Debates of 1921; L Weeks & M Ó Fathartaigh(Ed.) Dublin : Irish Academic Press
[ULIR]

2018

The Fifteenth Amendment of the Irish Constitution Act 1995
Laura Cahillane
(2018) The Fifteenth Amendment of the Irish Constitution Act 1995
In Women's Legal Landmarks: Celebrating 100 years of Women in Law in the UK and Ireland; E. Rackley and R. Auchmuty(Ed.) London : Hart Bloomsbury
[ULIR]

2017

Judicial Appointments in Ireland: The Potential for Reform
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Judicial Appointments in Ireland: The Potential for Reform
In Judges, Politics and the Irish Constitution; UK : Manchester University Press

2016

The Use of History in Law: avoiding the pitfalls
Laura Cahillane
(2016) The Use of History in Law: avoiding the pitfalls
In Legal Research Methods: Principles and Practicalities; Ireland : Clarus Press
[ULIR]

2016

Methods and Methodologies in Legal Research: Framing the Context
Laura Cahillane, Jennifer Schweppe
(2016) Methods and Methodologies in Legal Research: Framing the Context
In Legal Research Methods: Principles and Practicalities; Ireland : Clarus Press

Edited Books

2019

Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice
(2019) Case Studies in Legal Research Methodologies: Reflections on Theory and Practice
Laura Cahillane and Jennifer Schweppe(Ed.) Dublin : Clarus Press

2018

Special 80th Anniversary Edition Dublin University Law Journal
(2018) Special 80th Anniversary Edition Dublin University Law Journal
Laura Cahillane and David Kenny(Ed.) Dublin : Clarus Press

2017

Judges, Politics and the Irish Constitution
(2017) Judges, Politics and the Irish Constitution
Laura Cahillane, James Gallen, Tom Hickey(Ed.) UK : Manchester University Press

2016

Legal Research Methods: Principles and Practicalities
(2016) Legal Research Methods: Principles and Practicalities
Laura Cahillane, Jennifer Schweppe(Ed.) Ireland : Clarus Press

Peer Reviewed Journals

2021

The Constitutionality of Mandatory Minimum Sentences in Ireland
Laura Cahillane
(2021) The Constitutionality of Mandatory Minimum Sentences in Ireland
In Irish Jurist ;

2020

Ireland as a Learning Experience for the Scottish Citizens' Assembly
Laura Cahillane
(2020) Ireland as a Learning Experience for the Scottish Citizens' Assembly
In Edinburgh Law Review ;

2020

An Analysis of the Judicial Council Act
Laura Cahillane
(2020) An Analysis of the Judicial Council Act
In Dublin University Law Journal;

2019

Principles, policies and fair procedures after O'Sullivan v Sea Fisheries Protection Authority and Crayden Fishing Company Ltd v Sea Fisheries Protection Authority
Laura Cahillane
(2019) Principles, policies and fair procedures after O'Sullivan v Sea Fisheries Protection Authority and Crayden Fishing Company Ltd v Sea Fisheries Protection Authority
In Irish Supreme Court Review;

2018

Revisiting Article 41.2
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Revisiting Article 41.2
In Dublin University Law Journal;
[ULIR]

2016

Judicial Diversity in Ireland
Laura Cahillane
(2016) Judicial Diversity in Ireland
In Irish Journal of Legal Studies ;
[ULIR]

2015

Ireland's System for Disciplining and Removing Judges
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Ireland's System for Disciplining and Removing Judges
In Dublin University Law Journal;
[ULIR]

2014

An Insight into the Irish Free State Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2014) An Insight into the Irish Free State Constitution
In American Journal of Legal History;

2013

Need for Sentencing Guidelines in Ireland?
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Need for Sentencing Guidelines in Ireland?
In Irish Criminal Law Journal;

2013

Review of Eoin Carolan's The Constitution of Ireland: Perspectives and Prospects
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Review of Eoin Carolan's The Constitution of Ireland: Perspectives and Prospects
In Irish Jurist ;
[ULIR]

2013

Review of Gerard Hogan's The Origins of the Irish Constitution
Cahillane, L.
(2013) Review of Gerard Hogan's The Origins of the Irish Constitution
In Irish Journal of Legal Studies; pp. 126-
[ULIR]

2012

Application of the Protection of Employees (Fixed-Term Work) Act 2003
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Application of the Protection of Employees (Fixed-Term Work) Act 2003
In Irish Employment Law Journal;

2012

Anti-Party Politics and the Irish Free State Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Anti-Party Politics and the Irish Free State Constitution
In Dublin University Law Journal;

2011

The Influence of the Post War European Constitutions on the Constitution of the Irish Free State
Laura Cahillane
(2011) The Influence of the Post War European Constitutions on the Constitution of the Irish Free State
In European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance;

2010

The Prerogative and its Survival in Ireland: Dusty Antique or Positively Useful?
Laura Cahillane
(2010) The Prerogative and its Survival in Ireland: Dusty Antique or Positively Useful?
In Irish Journal of Legal Studies;
[ULIR]

2009

Judicial Discipline: Where do we Stand? A Consideration of the Curtin Case
Laura Cahillane
(2009) Judicial Discipline: Where do we Stand? A Consideration of the Curtin Case
In Irish Law Times;

2009

Ireland's Forgotten Constitutions
Laura Cahillane
(2009) Ireland's Forgotten Constitutions
In Irish Law Times;

2009

Disciplining Judges: The Special Position of District Court Judges
Laura Cahillane
(2009) Disciplining Judges: The Special Position of District Court Judges
In Irish Law Review;
[ULIR]

2008

Some Comparative Aspects of Common and Civil Law
Laura Cahillane
(2008) Some Comparative Aspects of Common and Civil Law
In Irish Law Times;

2005

Eire, Ireland or the Republic; What's in a Name?
Laura Cahillane
(2005) Eire, Ireland or the Republic; What's in a Name?
In Irish Law Times;

Conference Contributions

2020

IALT Seminar Series
Laura Cahillane
(2020) IALT Seminar Series
Online

2019

Sovereignty, Populism and Constitutional Politics
Laura Cahillane
(2019) Sovereignty, Populism and Constitutional Politics
University College Cork

2018

In dialogue with the Supreme Court
Laura Cahillane
(2018) In dialogue with the Supreme Court
University of Limerick

2018

Supreme Court Visit to Limerick
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Supreme Court Visit to Limerick
University of Limerick

2018

Irish Supreme Court Review Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Irish Supreme Court Review Conference
Trinity College Dublin

2017

Women's Legal Landmarks Workshop
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Women's Legal Landmarks Workshop
University of Birmingham

2017

Mr Justice Humphreys Guest Lecture
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Mr Justice Humphreys Guest Lecture
University of Limerick

2017

The Constitution at 80
Laura Cahillane
(2017) The Constitution at 80
University of Limerick

2017

Research Methodologies Workshop
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Research Methodologies Workshop
University of Limerick

2017

The Constitution at 80
Laura Cahillane
(2017) The Constitution at 80
University of Limerick

2016

Law, Revolution, and Sovereignty
Laura Cahillane
(2016) Law, Revolution, and Sovereignty
NUI Galway

2015

Irish Society of Comparative Law Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Irish Society of Comparative Law Conference
University of Limerick

2015

Lady Hale Agenda Setting Lecture
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Lady Hale Agenda Setting Lecture
University of Limerick

2014

Brehon Law Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Brehon Law Conference
NUI Maynooth

2014

Judges, Politics, and the Irish Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Judges, Politics, and the Irish Constitution
Dublin City University

2014

Justice Henchy Memorial Lecture
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Justice Henchy Memorial Lecture
Clare

2014

Judges, Politics and the Irish Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Judges, Politics and the Irish Constitution
Dublin

2014

Research Methodologies Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Research Methodologies Conference
University of Limerick

2013

North South Criminology Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2013) North South Criminology Conference
UCC

2013

British Legal History Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2013) British Legal History Conference
University of Glasgow

2013

Constitution Project Event on Seanad Referendum
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Constitution Project Event on Seanad Referendum
UCC

2012

CCJHR Postgraduate Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2012) CCJHR Postgraduate Conference
UCC

2012

ISCL Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2012) ISCL Conference
University College Cork

2012

Constitution Project Event on the Referendum Process
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Constitution Project Event on the Referendum Process
UCC

2012

The Burren Law School
Laura Cahillane
(2012) The Burren Law School
Clare

2012

Constitution Project Event on Children Referendum
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Constitution Project Event on Children Referendum
UCC

2012

Meeting of the National Women's Council of Ireland
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Meeting of the National Women's Council of Ireland
Cork

2012

Constitution Project Event on 1922 Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Constitution Project Event on 1922 Constitution
UCC

2012

90th Anniversary of the 1922 Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) 90th Anniversary of the 1922 Constitution
University College Cork

2011

ISCL Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2011) ISCL Conference
University College Dublin

2010

Irish Jurisprudence Society Symposium
Laura Cahillane
(2010) Irish Jurisprudence Society Symposium
University College Cork

2010

CCJHR Postgraduate Conference
Laura Cahillane
(2010) CCJHR Postgraduate Conference
UCC

Published Reports

2020

Country Report: Ireland, Constitution-making and Deliberative Democracy
Harris, Cahillane, Farrell, Stone and Suiter
(2020) Country Report: Ireland, Constitution-making and Deliberative Democracy
EU : EU COST Action Report CA17135, 2020

Other Publications

2021

Submission to Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on Head of Judicial Appointments Commission Bill
Laura Cahillane, Tom Hickey, David Kenny
(2021) Submission to Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on Head of Judicial Appointments Commission Bill

2020

Woulfe crisis shows that sorry is sometimes the hardest word
Laura Cahillane,
(2020) Woulfe crisis shows that sorry is sometimes the hardest word
The Business Post

2020

'Golfgate' shows that we need an independent body to investigate complaints against judges
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny
(2020) 'Golfgate' shows that we need an independent body to investigate complaints against judges
The Journal.ie

2020

Anti-abortion protests at hospitals: How have other countries handled them and what's the way forward here?
Laura Cahillane
(2020) Anti-abortion protests at hospitals: How have other countries handled them and what's the way forward here?

2020

New proposal on appointing judges silent regarding transparency
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny
(2020) New proposal on appointing judges silent regarding transparency
Irish Times

2020

Woulfe controversy: How wide should the gap be between politicians and the judiciary?
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny
(2020) Woulfe controversy: How wide should the gap be between politicians and the judiciary?
The Irish Examiner

2020

Submission on Judicial Appointments to Minister for Justice
Laura Cahillane, Tom Hickey, David Kenny
(2020) Submission on Judicial Appointments to Minister for Justice

2020

Opinion on Judicial Appointments and Removal for Sinn Féin
Laura Cahillane
(2020) Opinion on Judicial Appointments and Removal for Sinn Féin

2020

As a judge, should Séamus Woulfe have been anywhere near the golf dinner?
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny
(2020) As a judge, should Séamus Woulfe have been anywhere near the golf dinner?
Irish Times

2020

Opinion on Judicial Removal for Paul Murphy TD
Laura Cahillane
(2020) Opinion on Judicial Removal for Paul Murphy TD

2020

Denham Inquiry highlights need for mechanism to hold judges to account
Laura Cahillane
(2020) Denham Inquiry highlights need for mechanism to hold judges to account
Irish Times

2020

Politicians may have grounds to impeach Seamus Woulfe but it's a tricky business
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny
(2020) Politicians may have grounds to impeach Seamus Woulfe but it's a tricky business
The Journal.ie

2019

Opinion on the application of the Irish Constitution and EU General Data Protection Regulation to the Adoption (Information and Tracing) Bill 2016
Multiple
(2019) Opinion on the application of the Irish Constitution and EU General Data Protection Regulation to the Adoption (Information and Tracing) Bill 2016

2019

Why Judicial Appointments Reform is Necessary
Laura Cahillane
(2019) Why Judicial Appointments Reform is Necessary

2018

Opinion on Judicial Appointments Bill for Fianna Fáil
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Opinion on Judicial Appointments Bill for Fianna Fáil

2018

Opinion on Judicial Appointments Bill for Sinn Féin
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Opinion on Judicial Appointments Bill for Sinn Féin

2018

Opinion on Article 41.2 for Green Party
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Opinion on Article 41.2 for Green Party

2018

Why reform of Seanad Éireann should start with the electorate
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Why reform of Seanad Éireann should start with the electorate
RTE Brainstorm

2018

Opinion on the Constitutional Limits on Legislative Action in Adoption Information and Tracing Bill
Laura Cahillane, David Kenny, Conor O'Mahony
(2018) Opinion on the Constitutional Limits on Legislative Action in Adoption Information and Tracing Bill

2018

Opinion on Article 41.2 for Oireachtas Parliamentary researchers
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Opinion on Article 41.2 for Oireachtas Parliamentary researchers

2018

Delaying tactics or useful deliberative exercises? The Irish Citizen's Assembly and the Convention on the Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Delaying tactics or useful deliberative exercises? The Irish Citizen's Assembly and the Convention on the Constitution
IACL-AIDC Blog

2018

Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Article 41.2
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Article 41.2

2018

Contribution to Oireachtas Bibliographic Library
Laura Cahillane
(2018) Contribution to Oireachtas Bibliographic Library

2017

Latest Controversy Demonstrates need for Transparent Judicial Appointments System
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Latest Controversy Demonstrates need for Transparent Judicial Appointments System
Cork : ConstitutionProject

2017

Update on Judicial Appointments Row
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Update on Judicial Appointments Row
Cork : Constitutionproject

2017

Judges and Sentencing Policies
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Judges and Sentencing Policies
Dublin : RTE Brainstorm

2017

The Irish Constitution has served us well for the most part
Laura Cahillane
(2017) The Irish Constitution has served us well for the most part
Dublin : The Journal.ie

2017

We need to talk about the Women in the Home Provision
Laura Cahillane
(2017) We need to talk about the Women in the Home Provision
Irish Times

2017

Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Article 41.2
Laura Cahillane
(2017) Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Article 41.2

2017

The Resurrection of Tribunals in Ireland? Some Preliminary Thoughts on the Disclosures Tribunal
Laura Cahillane
(2017) The Resurrection of Tribunals in Ireland? Some Preliminary Thoughts on the Disclosures Tribunal
www.constitutionproject.ie

2016

The Judicial Appointments Saga
Laura Cahillane
(2016) The Judicial Appointments Saga
www.constitutionproject.ie :

2016

The President, Public Statements and Political Controversies
L Cahillane
(2016) The President, Public Statements and Political Controversies

2016

Opinion on Judicial Appointments for Minister Shane Ross
Laura Cahillane
(2016) Opinion on Judicial Appointments for Minister Shane Ross

2015

Understanding the Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Understanding the Constitution

2015

Questions remain about Dáil privilege despite judgment - The Irish Independent
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Questions remain about Dáil privilege despite judgment - The Irish Independent

2015

High Court Clarification a Victory for Democracy - The Irish Examiner
Laura Cahillane
(2015) High Court Clarification a Victory for Democracy - The Irish Examiner

2015

Parliamentary Privilege - the Irish Independent
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Parliamentary Privilege - the Irish Independent

2015

Answers to Marriage Referendum Questions posed on RTÉ's Prime Time
Laura Cahillane
(2015) Answers to Marriage Referendum Questions posed on RTÉ's Prime Time

2015

The Bederev case – a careful and considered restatement of the principles and policies test
Laura Cahillane
(2015) The Bederev case – a careful and considered restatement of the principles and policies test

2014

Submission on Judicial Appointments to Department of Justice
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Submission on Judicial Appointments to Department of Justice

2014

Cameras in Court Rooms
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Cameras in Court Rooms

2014

Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the Topic of Judicial Appointments
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the Topic of Judicial Appointments

2014

The Demise of the One Judgment Rule
Laura Cahillane
(2014) The Demise of the One Judgment Rule

2014

Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Judicial Appointments
Laura Cahillane
(2014) Address to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice on the topic of Judicial Appointments

2013

The Council of State and the Referral of Bills to the Supreme Court
Laura Cahillane
(2013) The Council of State and the Referral of Bills to the Supreme Court

2013

Judicial Appointments
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Judicial Appointments

2013

Preferendum on the Seanad
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Preferendum on the Seanad

2013

Judicial Independence and the Current Controversy
Laura Cahillane
(2013) Judicial Independence and the Current Controversy

2013

McGowan v Labour Court and the Unconstitutionality of Registered Employment Agreements
Laura Cahillane
(2013) McGowan v Labour Court and the Unconstitutionality of Registered Employment Agreements

2012

Q&A on Supreme Court Referendum Campaign Ruling
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Q&A on Supreme Court Referendum Campaign Ruling

2012

The Legacy of the Irish Free State Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) The Legacy of the Irish Free State Constitution

2012

Judge Heather Perrin and the question of judicial discipline and removal
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Judge Heather Perrin and the question of judicial discipline and removal

2012

Reforming the Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Reforming the Constitution

2012

Thoughts on the Irish Free State Constitution 90 Years On
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Thoughts on the Irish Free State Constitution 90 Years On

2012

The Irish Free State Constitution – Inspired by Irish history and world democracies
Laura Cahillane
(2012) The Irish Free State Constitution – Inspired by Irish history and world democracies

2012

Article 46 and Amendment of the Constitution
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Article 46 and Amendment of the Constitution

2012

Looking to the Past in Order to Move Forward
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Looking to the Past in Order to Move Forward

2012

Debate on Proposed Court Reform Now Required
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Debate on Proposed Court Reform Now Required

2012

An Sainchumas in Éirinn
Laura Cahillane
(2012) An Sainchumas in Éirinn

2012

Explaining the Supreme Court Ruling on the Government's Referendum Campaign
Laura Cahillane
(2012) Explaining the Supreme Court Ruling on the Government's Referendum Campaign

2011

The Irish Free State Constitution: Genesis, Drafting and Legacy
Laura Cahillane
(2011) The Irish Free State Constitution: Genesis, Drafting and Legacy

2011

The Judicial Pay Referendum is a Waste of Public Funds
Laura Cahillane
(2011) The Judicial Pay Referendum is a Waste of Public Funds

2011

Judicial Pay Referendum – Much Ado about Nothing
Laura Cahillane
(2011) Judicial Pay Referendum – Much Ado about Nothing

2010

Missed Opportunities in the Early Development of Judicial Review of Legislation in Ireland
Laura Cahillane
(2010) Missed Opportunities in the Early Development of Judicial Review of Legislation in Ireland

2008

Disciplining Judges in Ireland
Laura Cahillane
(2008) Disciplining Judges in Ireland